The cause and effect diagram (also named: Ishikawa diagram) is a classic tool in quality management and is applied for the determination of potential causes for a particular problem.
The project charter serves to concisely describe a project and to distance itself from other purposes.
The process that is to be improved is visualised in a compact shape of roundabout five to seven steps. This leads to a unique perception within the team regarding the total scope of the process being examined. The project range is limited by clear and traceable definitions of the procedural steps and the interfaces towards suppliers and clients.